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From antiquity to today. The history of dogs.
“There are no comrades to the taste and color” reads a well-known statement, and in relation to the choice of a pet, it is also relevant. Someone will choose a…

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The red wolf is an endangered animal
This species is included in the Red Book of Animals of the World by the International Union for the Protection of Animals. The red wolf lives on the territory of…

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Arctic Wolf: habits of animals and where they live

Despite the fact that the wolf adapted itself to “excellent” to the extremely difficult living conditions in the Arctic, most of the time the pack remains hungry, and therefore even a person when meeting with the family of polar predators almost never succeeds. Animal life in the Arctic Circle is very small, because vegetation is very scarce in these lands, where summer in our understanding never happens, and winter lasts nine or even ten months, and moreover, half a year is still in complete darkness when the sun disappears. What species of animals will survive in this climate and will be able to feed the wolf pack? If you manage to beat off the reindeer, the wolves eat it entirely – with the skin and bones, even a trace is not left. In such cases, an ordinary polar wolf, weighing from sixty kilograms and growing from eighty centimeters at the withers, can devour ten kilograms of meat and bones – for the future, the next meal may not happen a week or two.
Polar wolves are very large and dangerous animals. Dangerous, not because large, but because forever hungry. Small prey – polar partridges, for example, they don’t even try to chew very much, swallow them straight with feathers. In the stomach of a wolf (and dogs too) a very aggressive environment – everything digests. The wolves have adapted to the conditions of the Arctic, as already mentioned, very well. The cold here is simply terrible and never ends, even in summer there is no heat. Sunless winter temperatures last week for minus fifty. And while still irregular meals. What animal will endure all this? Therefore, polar wolf hair is special. It is extremely dense, with a thick undercoat. But no clothes will help to survive in such cold weather, if the animals will not move.
The way of life of animals beyond the Arctic Circle is predominantly nomadic. A flock is constantly running in search of food, they sweep many dozens of kilometers per day, because you need to try to find food for eight to fifteen individuals of this size. One polar hare is clearly not enough for such a team. Musk ox or reindeer – this is the most desirable prey. But it is much more difficult to take it: both deer and musk oxen are powerful animals, usually grazing in flocks, and if there are not enough strong hunters in a wolf pack, good luck is impossible. However, even in a large, strong flock, prey occurs around the tenth attempt.
There are many stories about animals living in unbearable arctic conditions. The harsh fate of the polar wolves inspired such writers as American Jack London, Canadian Farley Mowat, a fearless explorer who lived for two years in a flock with mountain wolves, British naturalist Sean Ellis and many, many others. The polar wolf lives in a place where even a trained person cannot live alone. These are the northern territories of Greenland, North America, Eurasia, that is, Russia.
In the icy wastelands, where there are practically no large trees, which means the abundance of animals that ordinary wolves hunt, there are not so many predators. Now the global warming has begun on the planet, and therefore the living conditions of the polar wolf have deteriorated sharply, and the survival rate has fallen. The species is listed in the Red Book of animals, hunting for this predator is prohibited. But poaching is flourishing – the polar wolf’s fur is very valuable, one can say it is unique, and therefore it is shot, violating the laws of all countries.
Arctic Wolf: animal reproduction
A wolf pack, especially beyond the Arctic Circle, lives according to its own strict laws. The communication system is the same – their unique voice. With the help of the howling wolf packs communicate with each other, they will get the latest news even faster than we are in the social network “V kontakte”. Including that borders of possessions decided to change. There are cases when these dangerous animals do not agree with the redistribution. Then the packs meet, and these negotiations end with bloody battles with many deaths.
The hierarchy in the wolf pack is also very complex and strictly enforced. The habits of animals in the Arctic are very different from those that we see in the animals of the middle zone. The most important indisputable authority among the polar wolves is the leader – the alpha male and his wife – the alpha female. All the others obey or leave and set up their own pack. Breeding is allowed only to the leaders. When puppies appear in low-ranking she-wolves, they are not left alive, and the mother can be severely punished.
At the alpha pair, once every one or two years, three or four cubs appear, which you need to take care of especially well, the whole pack feeds and trains them. The leader gives a lot of time and energy to growing up children. But when they grow up into adult wolves, they certainly have a choice: either to live in relative safety and communicate with their native flock, receiving its support, but to obey the elder in everything, or leave the family.
In this case, it will be very difficult to survive, since the pack initially rarely consists of more than three wolves. However, most often this is exactly what happens – the youngsters leave the family in order to establish their own dynasty, to be able to multiply

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