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Aquarium: care and maintenance for beginners

Keeping the fish in a clean and well-kept reservoir is the responsibility of everyone who wants to have floating pets. Improper care of the aquarium will lead to poor health of the fish, disruption of biological balance and, ultimately, the death of pets.
Caring for fish in an aquarium is divided into daily and weekly.
Daily care
The owner of the fish every day should be given to residents of a miniature reservoir 15-20 minutes of time.
The list of mandatory manipulations includes:
Check the tightness of the walls and the health of the installed equipment. Examine the glass for cracks and drips. Make sure the backlight is working, and air is flowing from the aerator into the water. The thermometer should show the correct temperature, and the temperature drop of water near the surface and near the ground should not exceed 3 degrees.
Inspection of the reservoir for the presence of algae, the appearance of signs of blooming water or turbidity.
Feeding. Daily, 1-2 times a day at a set time. Fish are prone to overeating, which can lead to their death, so watch out for the activity with which they eat food.
Inspection of freshwater inhabitants. Produced during feeding, because at this time most of the inhabitants of the underwater world swims out of shelters in search of food. Healthy fish – active and mobile, they do not swing and do not squeeze fins. On the body should not be spots, rashes, sores. Count the pets. If someone died, catch the corpse and find out the cause of death.
Removing food residues. After 20 minutes after feeding, make sure that no food remains on the surface of the soil. Excess can clog the water and filter, they must be cleaned with a siphon.
Weekly events
Dirty water is one of the probable causes of illness and poor health of aquatic inhabitants. Each week should be added 20-30% of the volume of water in the tank. The acidity, hardness, and temperature of the fresh water should be appropriate for the water in the aquarium. Previously, it should be defended 2-7 days (depending on the type of fish and the environment that suits them). Instead of settling, you can use special preparations and conditioners that bind heavy metals.
Weekly care for aquarium and fish also includes:
Cleaning the soil. It is carried out simultaneously with the intake of stagnant water from the aquarium with the help of a siphon. Siphon works on the principle of a pump, it is equipped with a tube for draining water, a pear and a funnel (cylinder) with a protective net. Conducting a funnel along the bottom, aquarists squeeze a pear. The liquid along with the remnants of organic matter gets into the cylinder and through the hose it turns out in a bucket or in another container. So you can get rid of the dirt from the bottom and carry out a partial intake of water.
Measurement of stiffness and acid-base balance. Pet shops sell special litmus test strips for this purpose. They show constant and temporary water hardness (DH and KH), PH balance. If the values ​​are outside the allowable limits, take action (reduce the hardness by pouring melt water into the tank and increase it by adding baking soda).
Rinsing the filter. If the water flow from the filter is weak, the device requires cleaning. Having disassembled the filter, it is necessary to carefully rinse its parts under running water (if it is mechanical). If the filter is biological, the chlorinated water from the tap will kill the colonies of beneficial bacteria, which clean the ecosystem of pet life products. Experts who know how to care for the aquarium, advised to wash the filter sponge in the water drained from the aquarium.
Cleaning glasses and decorations. Cleaning of glasses is carried out from two parties. And if from the outside the surface can be cleaned with detergents, remove the dirt from the inside should be very careful. For this purpose, sponges, scrapers, magnets and even plastic cards are used. The main thing – the absence of metal elements that can scratch the glass. Care of aquarium fish facilitate catfish (antsistrus, for example). They perfectly clean the walls of the tank from bacteria.
how to care for aquarium
Aquarium: care and maintenance
Any human intervention in the life of the inhabitants of the aquarium – a real shock to the latter. It is better to combine permutation of the scenery or replacement of plants with other procedures: cleaning the glass, removing the filter, checking the aerator. Scarab catfish and snails will help to remove microscopic algae from the walls. Small fish otsinklyusov can be trusted to clean the leaves of underwater plants, and some species of cichlids successfully cope with the green patina on the stones.
Equipment cleaning
Regular cleaning of the equipment is a guarantee of their uninterrupted work. Disassembled filter parts are cleaned with a toothbrush. The sealing gum on the filter cover should be regularly lubricated with special oil. It is necessary to carefully check the condition of the sprayers – they are often clogged due to deposits of calcium carbonate. Aerator duct hoses also require attention – over time they lose flexibility and become brittle.Water plants
Plants in an aquarium are not just decorative elements, but also living biofilters that absorb harmful substances and produce oxygen. Care for the aquarium at home also provides for the timely application of fertilizers. Plants need to be fed, maintaining the necessary levels of CO2, iron, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium and calcium. Nitrogen deficiency can be detected by the appearance of new yellowed leaves, potassium deficiency is determined by the yellow edges and holes in the leaves.
Pay attention to:
complex liquid preparations that support flora in the reservoir;
individual feeding, which is well suited for young plants;
doses of dry powder (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen).
care for aquarium fish
Stem plants need constant pruning, tape (vallisneria, sagittariya) require thinning. Should regularly remove damaged leaves. After planting during the first weeks, it is recommended to reduce the time for lighting the “underwater world” to 6 hours a day.
Water change
A full care of aquarium fish is impossible without a thorough cleaning of their home. Complete replacement of water – a real stress for the inhabitants of an artificial reservoir. The procedure is performed when:
massive disease of pets;
the need to repair or disinfect the tank;
constant flowering and incessant clouding.
Fish must be caught and moved to a separate container. It is advisable to remove the plants, decorations and remove the soil. Drain the water in the pelvis, should be disinfected (using formalin solution, chlorine), wash and dry the tank. All inventory is subjected to heat treatment (as an option – boiling), after which all accessories are thoroughly dried. After filling the reservoir with water, you need to wait 7-9 days until the ecosystem is restored, and only then run the pets.
Evaporation
Even if the aquarium is equipped with a cover glass, liquid evaporation on hot days cannot be avoided. The situation is exacerbated if it is on the windowsill on the sunny side or an overly powerful lamp is used for lighting. In addition to adding water, the solution may be to install an air conditioner in the room. If the aquarium is not covered with glass, you must purchase a tight-fitting lid.
When you already know how to care for aquarium and fish, remember a few simple rules:
the greater the volume of the tank, the easier it is to take care of it (the optimal volume is 60-150 l);
the number of fish is determined at the rate of 1 liter of water per 1 cm of the body;
the soil should consist of medium-sized sand grains (neutral in chemical composition);
species should be launched into the reservoir, compatible with temperament and living in a similar environment.

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